. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Orders Everything You Love On eBay. Check Out Great Products On eBay. But Did You Check eBay? Find Cinnamon. On eBay ADVERTISEMENTS: Synonyms: Cassia bark; Chinese cinnamon Biological source: It consists of dried stem bark of the plant Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Family: Lauraceae Geographical source: ADVERTISEMENTS: It is found in China, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Microscopical characters: 1. Periderm: a. Cork: It consists of several layers of radially arranged rows of thin walled cells with dark [ Figure 2.10 Microscopical features of bark powder of C. verum. 1, 1a. Fibres. 2. Selereids. 3. Starch granules.4. Cork in surface view. 5. Phloem parenchyma and oil cells (oc). 6. Parts of medullary ray with some of the cells containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate (co) and associated phloem parenchyma in tangential longitudinal section. 7
Powdered Cinnamon contains numerous thick-walled and pitted phloem in fibres, isolated or in groups, abundant starch grains and acicular microcrystals of calcium oxalate in parenchymatous cells, and a few sclerenchymatous cells B. Powder Microscopical characters of Cinnamon bark Aim: To identify the Powder Microscopical characters of Cinnamon bark Biological source:-Obtained from dried inner bark of the tree Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Family:-Lauraceae. Description: 1) Since cinnamon is a bark, there should be no microscopic epidermis and cork in th
Bark: ( C. zeylanicum ): Ceylon [Syn. Cinnamomum (acutum) verum ], in closely rolled double quills of 7-12 thin layers of separate pieces of bark, 30-50 Cm. (12-20') long, 8-13 Mm. (1/3-1/2') broad, bark 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, pale yellowish-brown, smooth, longitudinally striate with narrow groups of bast-fibres and brownish patches, occasional. Macroscopic Characters Stem-Bark: The quills are about 30 cm long and 2-6 mm thick. Lichen is present in huge quality on the outside surface. The taste of the stem bark is bitter and astringent. Root-Bark: Root bark is found in twisted pieces. Length is about 3-6 cm and the inner surface is striated. Microscopical Characters 2. Explain with a neatly labeled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters of and Cassia cinnamon. 3. Explain with a neatly labeled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters of Cinchona. 4. Explain with a neatly labeled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters of Ephedra 5 Morphological & histological characteristics of crude drugs Presented By :Mr. N. V. Thorat. 2. Ergastic cell contents: Introduction The cell contents, with which we are concerned in pharmacognosy are those which can be identified in vegetable drugs by microscopical examination or by chemical and physical tests
Q.28 heavily lignified phloem fibres with Y-shaped pits, secretory canals, microcrystals of calcium oxalate are diagnostic microscopical Characters of a) Kurchi b) Cascara c) Cinnamon d) Cinchona. Q.29 which one of the following is bicyclic monoterpenoids? a) Limonine b) Carvone c) Fenchone d) Menthon Microscopical Characters. The testa consists of a mucilage containing outer epidermis with polygonal tabular cells, one or two layers of collenchyma forming the round-celled layer, and a single layer of elongated selerenchyma. Below this layer of lignified pitted sclereids is a thin multiple hyaline layers composed of collapsed cells their external color, surface character, and texture along with taste. The mucilage content was checked by dipping both of the barks in water for 30 minutes and it was visibly different in amount. Then microscopical examination was performed using a compound microscope (Labomed; Model: LX 300) and suitable apparatus and reagents T.CUT 4/17/2015 7 Microscopical characters 8. 8 4/17/2015 Arillu s Oil Epiderm Oily layer Inner seed coat Perisperm EndospermSclerenchyma Embryo Raphe Microscopical characters 9. 9 Key elements Starch Oily layer 4/17/2015 10. 4/17/2015 10 The essential volatile oil in the seeds contain; a-terpineol 45%, myrcene 27%, limonene 8%, menthone 6%, ß. Morphology/Macroscopical Characters: Senna plants are low branching shrubs (3 feet) with a straight woody stem and yellow flowers. Leaflets of senna have stout petiolules, entire margin lamina with an asymmetric base and an acute apex. It has a characteristic odor (faint) and bitterish unpleasant taste. Microscopic Characters
The study on the chemical composition of the leaves of one of the most popularly known tropical plants, Senna siamea (Cassia leaves) has been carried out by analyzing samples of the plant leaves collected from Ado-Ekiti in Ekiti State for chemical composition.The proximate, elemental, phytochemicals and toxicant composition of the leaves of senna siamea were determined by analyzing samples of. Psyllium side effects. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. severe stomach pain. minor change in your bowel habits. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur Results: Macro-microscopical characters and chemical identity of the samples of immature fruits were established to derive set of characters for the identification of this marketed material. The proposed results would help in identification of this crude drug while used as substitute drug for the official source Salvia rosmarinus, commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis, now a synonym.. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other medicinal and culinary herbs
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, botryoides type, is characterized at low-power magnification by a cambium layer, which is defined as a subepithelial layer of condensed small hyperchromatic cells separated from an intact epithelium by a zone of loose connective tissue (Fig. 4.15A).The tumor has alternating hypo- and hypercellular areas, the former being typically edematous and/or myxoid Adulteration is a major problem met during the assessment of identity and quality of many herbal drugs. Difficulty arises when they are in the dry state and especially belonging to leaf parts of the plants, Leaves of the same genus are found to exhibit number of similar common macro-microscopic characters and hence most likely to be used as an adulterant for official drug The innermost part of the bast shares the structural character of cinnamon, with differences due to age, as, for instance, the greater development of the medullary rays. Oil cells and mucilage cells are likewise distributed among the parenchyma of the former. For an excellent description of the microscopical structure of the commercial. Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as 'Tamalapatra' is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade.Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them
These characters, however, vary in different samples, so that it is impossible by these means alone to distinguish cinnamon from cassia when in powder, and we are not aware that any certain means have been pointed out for effecting the discrimi- nation, especially when the two are mixed in different pro- portions ; but here again, as in so many. Microscopical characters The outer most layer consists of a well develop a continuous band of characteristics stone cells (sclereids). Sclereids are more or less rectangular and Cinnamon chips: these are the parts of untrimmed bark. They can be illustrious from the unaffected drug by the occurrence of rich cork cell Differentiate cassia bark from Ceylon cinnamon bark. Macroscopy and microscopy of any one alcohol type of volatile oil containing drug. Write the biological source, chemical constituents, chemical tests and uses of Agar. History and scope of Pharmacognosy; Insect flower. Macroscopy and Powder Microscopical character of any one bark drug. Cinnamon is a popular spice around the world, but there are other uses. Learn more about cinnamon as a spice, its other uses, health benefits, nutrition, and possible risks Method II. 250gms of powdered senna leaves are taken and extract with benzene (600ml) for 2 hours in an electric shaker, filtered in vacuum and distil off the solvent. Dry the residue at room temperature and extract again with 70% methanol on a shaker for 2-3hrs. Concentrate the methanolic extract to 1/8th of the volume
Q.34 Ellipsoidal Schizo-lysigenous oil gland is diagnostic microscopical character of a) Fennel b) Clove c) Coriander d) Caraway Q.35 The brown seed of nutmeg is surrounded by crimson reticulate..which is stripped off and dried to form mace Horak:Melanotus 307 b. Spores 5-6X2.5-3pm; cheilocystidia 16-40X3-5pm, fusoid with elongated neck; pileus-15 mm, pale brown or cinnamon; lamellae concolorous; stipe eccentric to lateral.Ondead grasses (Agrostis, Carex) andherbaceous stems (Scrophularia). Morocco 3. M.phillipsii, p. 309 NORTHAMERICA /SOUTH AMERICA ia. Spores thin-walled, 6-8(-g)X(4-)4-5-6 pm, broadlyovate; pileus-12mm Microscopical studies are not required for such crude drugs. These includes morphological or external characters of the plant parts or animal parts, i.e. which part of the plant is used as a drug,e.g. leaves, roots, Barks-cinchona, kurchi,cinnamon, Quaillai Draw a well labelled diagram of T. S. of cinnamon bark and describe any four microscopical characters. Description : Draw a well labelled diagram of T. S. of cinnamon bark and describe any four microscopical characters. Answer : Microscopy: 1. Pericyclic fibre: Small group of about 6 to 15 pericyclic lignified fibres 2
Cinnamon Peppermint. Used in the food industry. Morphological characters of unorganized drugs. Microscopical Characters. Helps in establishing the correct identity of a drug. Chemical constituents. Determines the intrinsic value of a drug and includes the chemical constituents presents in the drug 1. Explain with a neat labelled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters ofDatura 2. Explain with a neat labelled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters of and Cassia cinnamon. 3. Explain with a neat labelled diagram microscopy and powder microscopical characters of Cinchona. 4 Microscopical Character of Ginger: ADVERTISEMENTS: Below the epidermis the cortex is composed of parenchyma cells several layers thick with intercellular spaces. Oleoresin or oil drops are found scattered within the parenchymatous cells. The main constituent is starch and fibre. The oleoresin that gives pungent taste to the ginger is a viscous.
Describe methods sf collectioh and preparation of Opium and Senna. T + E = 13 17. Describe morphological and microscopical characters of ipecac trdtrh 51t =13 neat labelled diagram D3301215/19/DEC 2015 D3301215 Time 3Hours GOVERNMENT OF KARNATAKA (BOARD OF EXAMINING AUTHORITY D. Pharm. Part I Examinations (ER91) December20L5 PHARMACOGNOSY Max Distingushing characters of Alexandrian and Indian senna are given in Table below. Table : Distinguishing characters of Alexandrian and Indian senna Leaflets and legumes of Cassia angustifolia. Microscopy . Being isobilateral leaf, senna shows more or less similar features at both the surfaces of leaf with few differences. Transverse section of. After drying, microscopical characters were observed with 3% potassium hydroxide (KOH), 1% Congo Red aqueous solution, and Melzer's reagent (Largent et al. 1977). Thirty-five spores per specimens were measured, and an arithmetic mean of basidiospore length and width range was obtained and indicated with Xm ; length/width ratio was calculated.
Like the history of many spices, the history of cloves goes back many centuries. In fact, this spice was one of the first to be traded and evidence of cloves have been found in vessels dating as far back as 1721 BC. Native to the Malucca Islands, as many spices are, cloves were once a treasured commodity prized by the Ancient Romans The present volume, constitutes a second edition of the author's Introduction to the Study of Materia Medica which appeared in 1899. This change in title has been rendered desirable by the numerous additions that have been made to the work with the view of broadening its scope. To this end a chapter on the history and commerce of drugs has been added 41. Give the microscopical characters of Clove. 42. Describe the microscopical characters and uses of Datura. 43. Give the biological source, Family and uses of Cinnamon, and Podophylum. 44. Give the microscopical characters of Quassia. 45. Write notes on General aspects of Chemotaxonomy. 46 Microscopical powder characters of (Any eitht) A CY R M (a) Vasaka (b) Clove (c) Ephedra (d) Cinnamon (e) Liquorice (f) Digitalis (g) Quassia A H (h) Nuxvomica (i) Cinchona G) Coriander (k) Senna (1) Kruchi (m) Rauwolfia. P r a ry E OF 3..
Cloves have been discovered in ceramic vessels in Syria, placing the prized spice's use at about 1721 BCE. Additionally, Sinbad the Sailor, a character in the One Thousand and One Nights tales, bought and sold cloves in India, according to translations of the folktales.. During the Middle Ages, the clove trade was profitable, especially because clove oil was thought to prevent the spread of. Microscopical characters and powder analysis of leaves Mayank et al. studied the microscopic characters of leaf-like upper epidermis, lower epidermis, parenchymatous cells, colenchymatous cells trichomes, xylem, and phloem. Whole of the midrib filled with collenchymas with different types of trichomes such as covering and glandular Clove, tropical evergreen tree (family Myrtaceae) and its small reddish brown flower buds used as a spice. Cloves have a strong aroma and a pungent taste and are used to flavor many foods, particularly meats and bakery products. Learn more about clove tree and the history of the spice Bay leaves are an excellent source of vitamin A and vitamin C. The leaves are also high in folic acid, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, and riboflavin. Trace amounts of minerals, including copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium, zinc, and magnesium, can also be found in the leaves. The leaves are high in the essential oils.
(2011) Preliminary Phytochemical and microscopical study of Sariva used in Ayurveda 3 rd International Conference on Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products 19 th to 21 st December, Colombo, SriLanka,Planta Medica 77 - p37. Jeewandara MP, Sugathadasa KSS, Hettiarachchi PL and Abeysekera AM Clove is a plant grown in parts of Asia and South America. People use the oils, dried flower buds, leaves, and stems to make medicine. Clove is most commonly applied directly to the gums for. The black pepper plant is a woody climber and may reach heights of 10 metres (33 feet) by means of its aerial roots. Its broad shiny green leaves are alternately arranged. The small flowers are in dense slender spikes of about 50 blossoms each. The fruits, which are sometimes called peppercorns, are drupes about 5 mm (0.2 inch) in diameter
Antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are substances that play a role in the neutralization of free radicals and oxidative stress. The free radical production is balanced by the antioxidative defense system of our body .Any alterations between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its neutralization by antioxidant defense [18,19] cause oxidative stress Pharmacognostical investigation of selected part was carried out to study its macro and microscopical characters. Transverse section, fresh drug maceration and powder characters were studied. Secular outline T. S. showed exodermis, hypodermis, raphide bundles, endodermis, pericycle, proto and meta xylem and sap containing cells
Natural drugs obtained from plants and animals are called drugs of biological origin and are produced in the living cells of plants or animals. Pharmacognosy is the study of crude drugs obtained from plants, animals and mineral kingdom Bark Diagnostic Microscopical Characters P. Kurchi 1. Heavily lignified phloem fibres with Y-shaped pits, secretory canals, microcrystals of calcium oxalate Q. Cascara 2. Pericycle with stone cells having horse-shoe Shaped thickening, oil cells, minute needles of calcium oxalate R. Cinnamon 3. Alternating layers of stone cells and phloem
Gross morphology and other sensory characters. like colour, size, shape, odour, taste, fracture, texture etc., Microscopical Evaluation Study of microscopical characters of the organised drug. Types of cells, tissues present, cell contents like starch, calcium oxalate, mucilage, special structures like stomata or trichomes present or absen Q.1 (a) Describe the common microscopical & morphological characters in umbelliferous fruits. 06 (b) Give biological source, family, chemical constituents, uses and adulterants of clove. 05 (c) Enlist various methods for the production of volatile oil. Describe one of them. 05 Q.2 (a) How can you differentiate between Cinnamon bark from cassia.
The genus Mentha L. (Lamiaceae) is distributed all over the world and can be found in many environments. Mentha species, one of the world's oldest and most popular herbs, are widely used in cooking, in cosmetics, and as alternative or complementary therapy, mainly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders like flatulence, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and ulcerative colitis PHARMACY/ PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES (DEGREE STANDARD) SUBJECT CODE: 246 UNIT- I: a) The physical, physico-chemical and engineering principles governing design The bark shows following microscopical characters: 1) Tabular radially arranged cork cells may be suberised or lignified (e.g. in Cassia bark) 2) Thin walled cellulose Parenchymatous phellogen and phelloderm. 3) Collenchymatous and / or Parenchymatous cortex. 4) Parenchymatous or sclerenranchymatous pericycle, may contain band of stone and fires Notes: The microscopical characters of this material (BERGGREN 70) indicate that this fungus is identical with a widely distributed species of Galerina which grows mainly on rotten wood of Nothofagus cliffortioides. Article: Massee, G.E. (1899) . The fungus flora of New Zealand